Guide To Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library
BOOK OF HOURS, use of Rome1. f. 1r-v: Tabla de las devociones que estan en este libro Primeramente, El kalendario, A fojas 2, Las devociones que la reyna catholica acostumbrava a rezar por la mañana, A fojas 11… 2. ff. 2-10: Calendar with the months following one another directly; major feasts in red; included are the feasts of Ildephonsus “archiepiscopi toletani” (23 January, in red), Our Lady of Peace (24 January, in red), Julianus “archiepiscopi toletani” (8 March), Ermengildus “regis castelle” (13 April), “Festum nivis” (5 August), Transfiguration (6 August, in red), “Bellum de benamarim” (30 October 1340), Eugene “archiepiscopi toletani” (15 November, in red), Leocadia (9 December, in red), Servulus (23 December). 3. ff. 10v-17v: Prayers as follow: Orationes in surrectione lecti, Oratio, Gratias tibi ago omnipotens deus qui me in hac nocte non meis meritis…; Oratio, Gratias tibi ago domine sancte pater omnipotens eterne deus qui me de transacto noctis spacio…; Hymnus, Iam lucis orto sidere…[RH 9272]; Oratio, Domine deus omnipotens pater qui nos ad principium huius diei pervenire fecisti…with versicles and responses; Oratio, Dirigere et sanctificare regere et gubernare dignare domine deus rex celi et terre…with versicles, responses, benedictions and absolution; Oratio, Deus qui hodierna die per unigenitum tuum eternitatis nobis aditum devicta morte reserasti…; Oratio, Deus qui pro nobis filium tuum crucis patibulum subire voluisti…; Oratio, Indue me domine vestimento salutis…with versicles and responses; Oratio, Actiones nostras quesumus domine aspirando preveni…; Oratio, In viam pacis salutis et prosperitatis dirigat me hodie…with versicles and responses; Oratio, Deus maiestatis inmense quem nec spacia locorum seu temporum…; Devotissima Oratio, In manus tuas domine commendo animam meam spiritum meum…et ego misera et peccatrix te invoco…; Oratio, Altissime atque gloriossime domine mi iesu christe illumina cordis mei tenebras…; Oratio, Quesumus omnipotens deus ut famulus tuus rex noster qui tua miseratione suscepit regnorum gubernacula…; Oratio, Omnipotens sempiterne deus qui dirigis viam iustorum dirige famulum tuum regem nostrum recta via…; Oratio, Omnipotens sempiterne deus fac nos tibi semper et devotam gerere voluntatem…; Oratio, Mentes nostras quesumus domine lumine tue claritatis illustra…; Oratio, Largire nobis domine quesumus semper spiritum cogitandi…; Oratio, Sancti nominis tui domine timorem pariter…; Oratio, Ecclesiam tuam domine miseratio continuata mundet et muniat…; Inicium sancti evangelii secundum Ioannem, In principio erat verbum…[John 1, 1-14]. 4. ff. 18-22v: Short hours of the Cross, introduced on f. 18r-v by devotional material beginning on f. 18, Hierusalem luge et exue te vestibus iocunditatis, induere cinere et cilicio…, and on f. 18v, Christus semel pro peccatis nostris mortuus est… 5. ff. 23-27v: Short hours of the Holy Spirit, introduced on f. 23r-v by devotional material beginning on f. 23, Hodie completi sunt dies penthecostes alleluya…, and on f. 23v, Repleti sunt omnes spiritu sancto ceperunt loqui… 6. ff. 28-34: Short hours of the Conception, introduced on f. 28r-v by devotional material beginning on f. 28, Hylarius. O virgo benedicta super omnes feminas…, and on f. 28v, Tota pulchra es amica nostra… 7. ff. 34v-92v: Incipit officium beate marie virginis secundum consuetudinem romane curie, with variations for the liturgical year worked in for all the hours; weekly variations of the psalms at matins set into the text before the lessons; suffrages of All Saints from lauds to compline; the Hours of the Virgin are introduced by devotional material on f. 34v beginning, Gaude maria virgo quia quem totus non capit orbis…; lauds begins on f. 48, In mariam vite viam matrem veram…[RH 8671], and on f. 48v, Venit superior ad inferiorem portans in utero…; prime begins on f. 58, Hodie nobis celorum rex de virgine nasci dignatus est…, and on f. 58v, Beata viscera marie virginis que portaverunt eterni patris filium…; terce begins on f. 63, Propter nimiam charitatem suam qua dilexit nos deus filium suum misit…, and on f. 63v, Mirabile mysterium declaratur hodie innovantur nature…; sext begins on f. 68, Symeon iustus et timoratus expectans redemptionem israel et spiritus sanctus…, and on f. 68v, Accipiens symeon in ulnas suas iesum…; none begins on f. 73, Et egressus iesus ibat secundum consuetudinem in montem olivarum…, and on f. 73v, Tristis est anima mea usque ad mortem…; vespers begin on f. 78, Pilatus autem convocatis principibus sacerdotum et magistratibus et plebe dixit ad illos…, and on f. 78v, Ecce vidimus eum non habentem speciem neque decorem…; compline begins on f. 86 below 5 lines of regular text, Milites autem duxerunt eum intro in atrium pretorii et convocant totam cohortem…, and on f. 86v, Non est ei species neque decor… 8. ff. 93-98: Mass of the Virgin, Salve sancta parens…, beginning with devotional material on f. 93, Ornatam monilibus filiam hierusalem dominus concupivit…, and on f. 93v, Tota pulchra es amica mea et macula non est in te… 9. ff. 98-111: Penitential psalms and litany, including Leocadia among the virgins; the section begins on f. 98 below 11 lines of regular text, Tradiderunt me in manus impiorum et inter iniquos proiecerunt me…, and on f. 98v, Sicut ovis ad occissionem ductus est et quasi agnus… 10. f. 111v: Illumination and devotional material to introduce a section now missing after f. 111, which was, according to the Table on f. 1, the Office of the Dead; the devotional material on f. 111v begins, Surge propera amica mea columba mea… 11. ff. 140-151: Gradual psalms, in full, in 3 groups of 5 each, followed respectively by versicles and 3 prayers: Absolve quesumus domine animas famulorum famularumque tuarum…; Deus cui proprium est misereri semper et parcere…; Pretende domine famulis et famulabus tuis dexteram celestis auxilii…; Simbolum athanasii, Quicumque vult salvus esse…; Ps. 55; the gradual psalms are introduced by devotional material on f. 140, Ecce vicit leo de tribu iuda, radix david aperire librum…, and on f. 140v, Surrexit christus de sepulchro qui pro nobis pependit in ligno alleluya… 12. ff. 151v-157v: Orationes in introitu lecti, Gratias tibi ago omnipotens deus qui me in hac die non meis meritis…; Symbolum Athanasii, Quicumque vult salvus esse…; Initium sancti evangelii secundum Iohannem, In principio erat verbum…[John 1, 1-14]; Ad sanctum michaelem Commemoratio, Princeps gloriosissime michael archangele esto memor mei…with versicles, response and prayer, Deus qui miro ordine angelorum…, Versus, Angelum pacis michael ad istam celitus mitte rogitemus aulam nobis…with versicles, response and prayer, Deus cuius providentia humano generi…, Ad angelum, Obsecro te angele dei spiritus bonus cui in custodia sum comissa…; Confessio generalis, Confiteor deo omnipotenti et beatissime virgini marie…, Absolutio, Indulgentiam et remissionem omnium peccatorum meorum…, Oratio, Gratias tibi reffero domine deus omnipotens pro universis bonis que mihi contulisti…Protestor etiam me victuram et morituram in sancta atque catholica fide tua…; Hymnus, Christe qui lux es et dies…; Hymnus, Te lucis ante terminum rerum creator poscimus ut solita clementia…[RH 20138] with versicles and prayer, Visita quesumus domine habitationem istam…; Oratio, Me mundet et muniat consignetur salvet titulus triumphalis…; Oratio devotissima, Pax tua dulcissime ac amantissime iesu et virtus sanctissime incarnationis tue…; this section is introduced on f. 151v by devotional material beginning, Ascendens christus in altum captivam duxit captivitatem… 13. ff. 158-162: Suffrages of John the Baptist, Christopher […et mihi famulo tuo N…], Jerome, Mary Magdalene, Apollonia, Catherine of Alexandria, Agatha, Elizabeth, Roch, Margaret, Francis, Anthony of Padua; f. 162v, blank. Parchment, ff. iii (paper) + i (parchment) + 136 (but 162 according to the contemporary foliation in roman numerals used in this description, since “15” was skipped in the foliation and ff. 112-139 are missing) + i (parchment) + ii (paper); 167 × 110 (125 × 75) mm. 110 2 (5 leaves, ff. 11-16, with the number 15 skipped in the foliation; structure unclear) 312(ff. 17-31; +2, f. 18; +5 and 6, ff. 21-22, a bifolium) 4-58 68(+1, f. 48) 78(+2, f. 58 and 7, f. 63) 88(+2, f. 68 and 7, f. 73) 98(+2, f. 78) 106(+1, f. 81; +8, f. 93; +9, f. 94) 11-128 + f. 111 (a singleton, presumably once part of the missing section between ff. 111-140) 13 (?, ff. 140-143, now all singletons but with 4 stubs preceding them) 146(+1, f. 144 and 8, f. 151) 156(through f. 157) 168(?). Catchwords written vertically in the space formed by the double bounding lines of the inner margin. 24 long lines, written between, not on the lines; ruled in pale red ink for the text with double lines full across and full length for the frame of the written space. The illuminated leaves contain 17 lines of text on the recto, and 6 on the verso, below the picture. Written in a round gothic book hand, with dark black ink, often flaking; on the recto and the bottom 6 lines of the verso of leaves with miniatures, the devotional material is written in a humanistic hand in gold ink, against deep red or purple grounds (except for f. 48v which continues the round gothic script). Seventeen miniatures (all but 2, on ff. 10v, 28), 56 × 39 mm., enclosed by simple gold frames with decorative molding diagonally across the 2 upper corners, probably by Simon Bening. The miniatures with their frames were painted on rectangles of parchment which were then glued to the folios (sometimes singletons, sometimes part of the quire structure); a second artist, less capable, then painted over the join to form an illustrated space of 82 × 84 mm., set above 6 lines of text written in gold humanistic script on dark colored grounds; the entire area is framed in gold strips of wood molding, and the same frame surrounds the text on the facing page. Copies or echoes of engravings by Martin Schongauer occur in the miniatures of the Crucifixion (Lehrs 12), Flagellation (Lehrs 22), Mocking of Christ (Lehrs 23), Road to Calvary (Lehrs 9) and Resurrection (Lehrs 30)1; for this practice in other manuscripts illuminated by Simon Bening, see M. Kupfer-Tarasulo, “Innovation and Copy in the Stein Quadriptych of Simon Bening,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 42 (1979) 274-98, and “A Rosary Psalter illuminated by Simon Bening” Quaerendo 9 (1979) 209-23. The miniatures are: f. 10v (Orationes in surrectione lecti), the second artist has done the entire picture showing Christ as Salvator Mundi in half-length; in the space below the picture, a coat of arms (see below) instead of text; f. 18v (Hours of the Cross), Crucifixion with Mary and John in the small painting, and Renaissance ornament in the border painted over the join; f. 23v (Hours of the Holy Spirit), Pentecost, with Renaissance ornament in the outer area; f. 28 (Hours of the Conception), a single large miniature, by the second artist, showing the meeting of Joachim and Anne at the Golden Gate, with 2 women on the right, a shepherd on the left, and an angel above; f. 34v (Hours of the Virgin), Annunciation; a line through the angel has been badly rubbed due to buckling in the onlaid parchment; in the outer area the second artist has extended the city seen through the open loggia of Mary’s house; f. 48v (Lauds), Visitation, at closer range than the other onlaid miniatures; the second artist has painted 2 angels in camaïeu d’or who support the picture of the first artist; this leaf and the facing one are surrounded by a rich border of dark pink with gold Renaissance ornament, light blue cameos, laurel leaves and a laurel wreath containing a coat of arms (see below); the text on the recto of this singleton leaf is in the usual gold humanistic script on a dark ground; however, on the verso, the text is in 7 lines of the same round gothic script as the main text; f. 58v (Prime), Nativity, with Renaissance ornament in the outer border; f. 63v (Terce), Circumcision, with Renaissance ornament in the border; f. 68v (Sext), Presentation in the temple, with Renaissance ornament in the border; f. 73v (None), Agony in the Garden, with Renaissance ornament in the border; f. 78v (Vespers), Flagellation with Renaissance ornament in the border; f. 86v (Compline), Mocking of Christ; the second artist has painted a pastoral landscape as background to the onlaid miniature; f. 93v (Mass of the Virgin), Coronation of the Virgin by God the Father and the Son, as identical Jesus-like figures with the Dove between them; in the outer border, Renaissance ornament; f. 98v (Penitential psalms), Road to Calvary; the second artist has extended the scene with crowds curving up the hill and he appears to have continued the foliage from his border back into the onlay; f. 111v (Office of the Dead), Dormition of the Virgin, set against a pastoral landscape border; f. 140v (Gradual psalms), Resurrection, with a Renaissance ornament border; f. 151v (Orationes in introitu lecti), Ascension of Christ, against a landscape border which continues the scene begun in the inner frame. 6-, 5-, and 4-line initials as white or gold branches or ribbons against square speckled grounds of yellow, green, maroon or blue; those on f. 35 (Hours of the Virgin) and f. 99 (Penitential psalms) enclose naturalistic flowers. 3- and 2-line initials as white or gold branches on square maroon, blue or green grounds; 1-line initials in painted gold on maroon or blue square grounds; ribbon line fillers in gold-decorated olive green, maroon or blue; initials within the text touched in gold. Rubrics in pale red ink. Bound by Derome le Jeune (with his ticket) in green morocco with gold dentelle tooling; pink silk doublures and endpapers; gilt edges; rust marks on the first and last parchment flyleaves from the clasps of a previous binding. Written in Spain in the area of Toledo, as the entries in the calendar indicate; feminine forms in the prayers on ff. 14, 155 and 156. The coats of arms on ff. 10v and 48v are those of Charles V and Isabel of Portugal, impaled; the book must have been made between 1526 (their marriage) and 1539 (Isabel’s death); miniatures done in Flanders. For another book of hours with the same arms and copied by the same scribe, see Doheny sale, Christie’s, 2 December 1987, pt. 2, lot 175. Belonged to Count Justin MacCarthy-Reagh (1744-1811) of Toulouse; his sale through the Parisian bookseller De Bure in 1817, n. 396. Belonged to William Beckford (1759-1844) with his number 2 pencilled in on f. ii; he bequeathed his materials to his son-in-law, Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton (1767-1852), whose library monogram “HB” and number 654 also appear on f. ii. Catalogued for sale, Sotheby’s 1882, lot 461; before the sale, the collection was purchased in toto by the Prussian government; W. von Seidlitz, “Die illustrierten Handschriften der Hamilton-Sammlung (Schluss),” Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 8 (1885) 94-110, esp. 104-05. Sotheby’s, 23 May 1889, n. 32 with facsimile (no plates in the catalogue seen by us) to Trübner. Jacques Rosenthal Catalogue 27, n. 31. In the library of William K. Bixby (1857-1931) of St. Louis, whose book plate is on the front pastedown; portions of this collection were acquired by Henry E. Huntington in August 1918. Bibliography: F. Winkler, Die Flämische Buchmalerei (Leipzig 1925) 140. De Ricci, 100. A. Biermann, “Die Miniaturenhandschriften Kardinals Albercht von Brandenburg (1514-1545), Aachener Kunstblätter 46 (1975) 266 n. 93. J. H. Marrow, “Simon Bening in 1521: A Group of Dated Miniatures,” in Liber Amicorum Herman Liebaers (Brussels 1984) 540.
Flanders, s. XVI1
1 We are grateful to Prof. James Marrow for pointing out this coincidence and for the relevant bibliography.
C. W. Dutschke with the assistance of R. H. Rouse et al., Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1989). Copyright 1989.
Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California.
Electronic version encoded by Sharon K, Goetz, 2003.
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