Guide To Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library


HM 1131

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BOOK OF HOURS, use of the congregation of Windesheim
Flanders, s. XV/XVI
1. f. 1v: coat of arms (see below). 2. ff. 2-11v: Calendar, with the months run on; major feasts in red, with those next in importance indicated by red underlining; included are the feasts of Pontianus (14 January, in red), Servatius (13 May, underlined in red), Odulph (12 June, underlined in red), Mary Magdalene (22 July, in another hand), Transfiguration (7 August [sic], in red), Remacle (3 September), Remigius and Bavo (1 October, underlined in red), Willibrord (7 November); f. 12r-v, blank. 3. ff. 13-19v: Short hours of the Cross, missing 1 leaf after f. 14, with loss of much of terce; each hour ends with a 4-line stanza to the Virgin, De domina nostra, Matutino tempore marie nunciatur quod a iudeis perfidis christus captivatur…[RH 29562]; Oracio devota de passione domini, Precor te piissime domine ihesu christe propter illam eximiam caritatem…[Wilmart, 378, n.]; Item Alia oratio, Domine ihesu christe qui pro redemptione mundi voluisti a iudeis reprobari… 4. ff. 20-52v: Hours of the Virgin, use of the congregation of Windesheim; from lauds through compline, each hour ends with a prayer and responses to the Holy Spirit; ends, De domina Antiphona, Salve regina misericordie…[RH 18147]; Collecta, Interveniat pro nobis quesumus domine ihesu criste nunc et in hora mortis nostre…; In summis festis de domina, Alma redemptoris mater, que pervia celi porta manes…[RH 861], with the preceding collect; Collecta Tempore paschali, Regina celi letare…[RH 17170] with versicle, response and prayer, Prosit nobis semper quesumus omnipotens pater et precipue inter hec paschalia filii tui solempnia… 5. ff. 53-65v: Penitential psalms and litany, including Crisogonus, Lambert, Denis, Crispin and Crispinian, Pontianus, Pancratius and Theodard among the martyrs; Hubert, Eligius, Remigius, Bavo, Amand, Willibrord, Servatius, Alexius, Gallus, Aegidius and Odulph among the confessors; Petronilla, Walburga, Gertrude, Oda, Bridget, Ursula and Kunera (Ciwa?) among the virgins. 6. ff. 66-84v [f. 66, blank]: Office of the Dead; 3 lessons at matins; ends with a series of prayers, the last being, Quando itur in cimiterio oratio pro defunctis dicenda, Avete omnes fideles anime…[Leroquais, LH 2:341]. 7. ff. 85-107: Prayers as follow: O domine ihesu christe adoro te in cruce pendentem…[Leroquais, LH 2:346, with his n. 3 at the end]; Obsecro te domine ihesu christe ut passio tua sit virtus mea…; Quicumque dixerit sequentem coram facie salvatoris promeretur a iohanne papa xxm dies indulgentie, Salve sancta facies…[RH 18189]; Alia oratio de eodom, Ave facies preclara, pro nobis in crucis ara…[RH 1787] with versicles and prayer, Deus qui nobis signatis lumine vultus tui…[HE, 175]; Alia oratio, Omnipotens sempiterne deus de cuius munere preeminet hec facies tua expressa…; De nomine ihesu, O bone ihesu, O piissime ihesu, O dulcissime ihesu…[Wilmart, ‘Jubilus,’ 267-68]; Oratio venerabilis bede presbiteri de septem verbis domini in cruce pendentis, Domine ihesu criste qui septem verba…[Leroquais, LH 2:342]; De septem doloribus virginis marie, O piissima dei genitrix sancta maria cuius cor dolore sanciatum fuit…; Sequentem orationem edidit dominus sixtus papa quartus et concessit omnibus eam devote dicentibus coram ymaginem beate marie in sole xim annorum indulgencie, Ave sanctissima maria mater dei regina celi porta paradisi…; Officium misse de beata virgine maria, …, Salve sancta parens…[with collects, readings, secret, preface and communion]; Sequuntur devote orationes dicende ad beatam virginem mariam cum multis indulgenciis, Obsecro te…Et michi famulo tuo impetres…[Leroquais, LH 2:346]; Oracio pulcherrima de domina nostra, O Intemerata…orbis terrarum. De te enim…[Wilmart, 494-95]; Devota salutacio ad beatam virginem mariam dicenda, Salve mater salvatoris vas electum vas honoris…[RH 18051]; Oratio de gaudiis beate marie virginis, Gaude dei genitrix virgo immaculata gaude que ab angelo gaudium concepisti…; Devota oratio de doloribus marie virginis, Stabat mater dolorosa…[RH 19416]; Dulcis oratio beati bernardi ad beatam virginem mariam, O Piissima dei genitrix virgo maria, Ecce coram dilecto filio tuo…; Ad mariam virginem salutatio, Gaude dei genitrix virgo immaculata, Gaude domina angelorum, tu advocata peccatorum… 8. ff. 107v-114v: Suffrages of one’s guardian angel, Andrew, Stephen, Christopher [masculine forms], Martin, Anne, Mary Magdalene, Catherine of Alexandria, Barbara, Margaret, All Saints. 9. ff. 115-120v: Prayers as follow: Oratio mane dicenda quando surgis, In nomine domini nostri ihesu christi surgo…; Oratio de vesperi dicenda, Omnipotens sempiterne deus, quidquid ego miser peccator hoc die cogitatione, locutione, opere…; Oratio quando elevatur corpus domini, Ave verum corpus natum ex maria virgine…[Wilmart, 373-76]; Ad elevationem calicis, Ave vere sanguis domini nostri ihesu christi qui de latere eius…[Wilmart, 378, n.]; Oratio dicenda post elevationem quam qui devote dixerit consequitur ab Innocentio papa sexto xxm dierum indulgentie, Domine ihesu christe qui hanc sacratissimam carnem…[Wilmart, 378, n.]; Commendatio ad deum et sanctos eius, Omnipotens deus conditor celi et terre, in hac die commendo tibi animam et corpus meum…Nunc deprecor te et omnes sanctos tuos ut me famulam tuam…; Oracio ante communionem dicenda, O dulcissime atque amantissime domine ihesu criste quem nunc devote desidero suscipere…; Oratio sub communione dicenda, Domine non sum dignus…; Oratio dicenda post communionem, Gratias ago tibi omnipotens et misericors deus, gratias ago tremende tue maiestati…; Item post communionem oratio, Hec sunt convivia que tibi placent o patris sapientia natus de virgine…; Oratio post communionem dicenda, Laudo benedico et gracias ago tibi dulcissime ihesu quia me indignum…; Antiphona de sacramento, O quam suavis est domine spiritus tuus qui ut dulcedinem tuam in filios demonstrares…with versicle and prayer, Quesumus domine per hec munera nos a peccatorum nostrorum maculis emunda… Parchment (rather stiff), ff. ii (paper) + i (parchment) + 120 + i (parchment) + ii (paper); 153 × 114 (103 × 70) mm. 14(+1) 26(+7, f. 12) 38(-3, after f. 14) 4-88 96(through f. 65) 108(+1, f. 66) 116 124(through f. 84) 13-148 158 168 178(-7, 8). 20 long lines, ruled in light purple ink; some pricking visible in the lower margin. Written in a gothic book hand. Two full page illuminations, both on the versos of added singletons: f. 1v, a coat of arms (see below), suspended by a green belt from gold gothic tracery and enclosed by a simple gold picture frame; in the border flowers made from jewels hang from thin gold acanthus branches, against a deep orange-red ground; f. 66v (Office of the Dead), in paler tones than the other miniatures, Last Judgment, with Christ sitting on a rainbow, his feet on a crystal globe and the sword and olive branch on either side of his head, with the blessed gathered behind him, and the dead rising from their graves below. Six large miniatures above 6 lines of text in the style of the artists of the Grimani Breviary, enclosed by simple arched frames, with naturalistic flowers, insects or objects in the outer border; the miniatures are: f. 13 (Hours of the Cross), Betrayal with Judas in a bright yellow robe kissing Jesus, as Peter holds his still unsheathed sword, and Malchus crouches in the foreground, grimacing in pain; f. 20 (Hours of the Virgin), Annunciation, with the Virgin kneeling in front of a long bench in a spacious room; in the foreground are the vase of lilies and a pair of slippers; f. 53 (Penitential psalms), the prophet Nathan, with his hand on David’s shoulder, encourages him to repent; David with red eyes and his hands folded in prayer, looks up to a golden opening in the sky, against a landscape of rocky hills, a castle and other towns in a far blue distance; f. 67 (Office of the Dead), Raising of Lazarus, helped by Peter who unties the ropes around his wrists, while his sisters kneel in prayer, and a man with a shovel and another covering his nose, look on; f. 85 (O domine ihesu criste adoro te in cruce pendentem), Mass of St. Gregory; in the outer border grey and pink flowers, some in a blue and white vase with the IHS monogram; f. 93 (Ave sanctissima maria mater dei regina celi), the Virgin and Child, possibly by a different artist, in a style resembling Gerard David; for a similar pose, see the Grimani Breviary, Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, MS Lat. I, 99 (2138) f. 830v; in the outer border of this miniature: a red panel lettered in gold “Maria Mater Dei [?],” and niches in gothic architecture containing statues, one of which may be intended to represent Pope Sixtus IV. Sixteen smaller miniatures, 45-55 × 43-50 mm., on leaves with full borders in the same styles: f. 14 (Hours of the Cross, Prime), Christ before Pilate; the opening leaf for terce is missing; f. 15 (Sext), Road to Calvary, with one of Christ’s tormentors kicking him; f. 16 (None), Crucifixion with Mary and John, both red-eyed from weeping; f. 17 (Vespers), Deposition from the Cross; f. 18 (Compline), Pietà with John on one side and Mary Magdalene on the other; f. 26 (Hours of the Virgin, Lauds), Visitation, with Elizabeth half-kneeling before Mary (see the Grimani Breviary, f. 610v); f. 33 (Prime), Nativity, with 2 angels with brightly colored wings adoring the Child, as Joseph looks through a hole in the masonry; f. 36 (Terce), Annunciation to the shepherds, one of whom covers his eyes; f. 38v (Sext), Adoration of the Magi, one of whom is black; f. 41 (None), Presentation in the temple; f. 43v (Vespers), Massacre of the Innocents, in pale tones; f. 48 (Compline), Flight into Egypt with a falling idol and the miracle of the corn field in tiny detail in the far upper right corner of the miniature, a city and a person walking are on the left; f. 86v (Salve sancta facies), half-length figure of Jesus in a red tunic, blessing and holding a crystal cross-and-orb; f. 88v (De nomine ihesu), the Christ Child nude, seated on a red pillow, holding a tau-cross and blessing, in glory; in the outer margin the sacred monogram formed with pearls and gold branches; f. 91 (the Seven Sorrows of Mary), the Virgin, sitting, with 7 swords piercing her heart, each of which bears on the handle a large roundel with the scenes of Sorrow; in the outer border, gold bells hang from a pearl-encrusted trellis; f. 117 (Oracio ante communionem dicenda), 2 angels with brightly colored wings support a monstrance containing the Eucharist, before a red brocade background. Miniatures for the suffrages, ca. 40-30 × 30-25 mm.: f. 107 (Guardian angel), the angel holding a small naked child representing the soul; f. 108, Andres; f. 108v, Stephen; in the border, pearls and other pendants, including one of the Crucifixion, hanging by gold chains from a deep red cloth; f. 109, Christopher; border as on f. 108v, but here including a gold oval pendant of the Virgin; f. 110, Martin, 48 × 40 mm.; f. 110v, Anne sitting on a throne with a red cloth behind her, reading; the Virgin, holding the baby Jesus, sits at her feet; in the border, the legend “De Sancta Anna”; f. 111, Mary Magdalene, seated reading on a low brick wall covered with grass and flowers; a tall rocky hill rises exactly behind her, with cities in the distance; in the border, the legend “De Sancta Mag.”; f. 111v, Catherine of Alexandria, seated on the ground beside the same low brick wall with green grass and scattered flowers on top; f. 112v, Barbara, seated on the floor indoors, with a view from her window of the tower under construction; in the border, the legend “Ora pro nobis beata Barbara ut (followed by cryptic, decorative writing)”; f. 113v, Margaret, emerging from the dragon’s back. 3-, 2- and 1-line initials, in grey highlighted and decorated in white against gold-decorated maroon grounds; ribbon line fillers in the same colors. Rubrics in red. Erased inscription on f. 87. Bound, s. XVII, in Belgian red morocco with gold tooling; blue silk endpapers; gilt edges. Written perhaps in the Ghent-Bruges area as suggested by the style of the miniatures, but liturgically intended for someone connected with a house of the Windesheim congregation. A reference in an indulgence on f. 93 to Pope Sixtus IV indicates a date certainly after 1471. Although most prayers present masculine forms, one, on f. 116v, refers to “me famulam tuam.” The coat of arms on f. 1v bears the elaborate achievement of Margaretha van Bergen, consort of Floris van Egmond. The representation presumably dates from before 1500 when Floris van Egmond’s father died, since the Egmond arms are here differenced with a label of six points argent; the representation is also considered to be before 1505 when Floris van Egmond was elected to the order of the Golden Fleece: the collar of that order is not present. Nor could these be the arms of Margaretha’s and Floris’ son, Maximilian, since she was not an heiress. The arms are: per pale: I, quarterly, 1 and 4, gules three chevrons or (Egmond; Rietstap, vol. 2, pl. 257); 2 and 3, gules one fesse counter-embattled argent (Arkel; Rietstap, vol. 1, pl. 66); over all, or a saltire checky argent and gules (Isselstein; Rietstap, vol. 3, pl. 258); II, per fesse, 1, per pale, sable a lion rampant or (Brabant; Rietstap, vol. 1, pl. 300); and paley gules and or (Berthout; Rietstap, vol. 1, pl. 196); 2, vert three mascles argent (Bautersem; Rietstap, vol. 1, pl. 146). This impaling, for Bergen-op-Zoom, in Rietstap, vol. 1, pl. 185. Belonged to Ambroise Firmin Didot (1790-1876); his sale, Paris, 12 June 1882 n. 18 to Baron de Beurnonville; later owned by William K. Bixby (1857-1931) of St. Louis; acquired by Henry E. Huntington through G. D. Smith in August 1918. Bibliography: De Ricci, 95.
Abbreviations
De Ricci
S. De Ricci, with the assistance of W. H. Wilson, Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (New York 1935-37; index 1940)
HE
C. Wordsworth, ed., Horae Eboracenses. Surtees Society 132 (1920)
Leroquais, LH
V. Leroquais, Les Livres d’heures manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris 1927-43)
RH
U. Chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum (Louvain 1892-1912, Brussels 1920-21)
Rietstap
J. B. Rietstap, Armorial général (2nd ed. 1884-87; plates 1903-26 and Supplements 1926-51 by V. Rolland and H. Rolland)
Wilmart
A. Wilmart, Auteurs spirituels et textes dévots du moyen âge latin (Paris 1932; repr. 1971)
Wilmart, ‘Jubilus’
A. Wilmart, “Le ‘Jubilus’ sur le nom de Jesus dit de Saint Bernard,” Ephemerides liturgicae 57 (1943) 1-285

C. W. Dutschke with the assistance of R. H. Rouse et al., Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1989). Copyright 1989.
Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California.
Electronic version encoded by Sharon K, Goetz, 2003.
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